Debian Linux Modem Configuration
The material on this page was prepared using Sarge or Etch
configured using our Installation and Packages pages.
If you did not use our pages to set up your system, what you
encounter on your system may be different than what is given here.
This page covers how to configure dial-up modems. See the Web HOWTO documents for cable or DSL modems. A comparison of cable and DSL broadband services is presented on the Networking page.
First and foremost, make sure your modem is not a "winmodem" (a stripped-down modem that's controlled through a Windows software driver). Second, if at all possible get yourself an external modem. An external non-winmodem modem presents a lot less headaches trying to set up and having the indicator lights to look at during proxy/firewall testing and console FTP (when there is no file transfer progress indicator) is a real benefit. Internal modems basically have three problems. They either; are winmodems, are likely going to be PCI bus modems (and 99% of PCI bus modems are Winmodems), or they have to be set up via software - software which is usually only available for Windows.
Also, if you're going to use an external modem, go into your system BIOS' peripheral settings and take the serial port you've connected the modem to (connect the modem before doing this) out of AUTO mode so that it explicitly uses 3F8h/IRQ4 or 2F8h/IRQ3.
Note: If your system won't be connected to a network that has broadband Internet access you'll want to spend a little extra to get a good modem. Once you get your system set up using the Debian DVDs you'll rely on the modem to update your system. With so many people going to broadband services at home, you can usually pick up an external USR Sportster 56K non-winmodem on eBay for around $35.Because internal modems also represent an additional serial port, you have to be careful in setting the modem up. If you have an internal modem that you want to try and use, see if it has jumpers on it that will allow you to set the I/O port and IRQ settings. If it doesn't, and it only comes with Windows configuration software, you'll have to temporarily install the modem into a Windows sytsem and use the software to set the I/O port and IRQ values.
The Physical Connection
Newer ystems will come with either one or two serial ports which are built into the motherboard. These are typically 9-pin male connectors on the back of the PC. You can simply connect an external modem to one of these. If you add an internal modem to the system it has to be set up as the next serial port (for example number 3 in a system that has two of them built in). Or, if your system BIOS allows it, you could disable the second serial port and set the modem up to take its place. The following table will help you set the jumpers or software configuration on an internal modem card.
Serial Port Windows Linux I/O Port IRQ First COM1 /dev/ttyS0 03F8 4 Second COM2 /dev/ttyS1 02F8 3 Third COM3 /dev/ttyS2 03E8 4 Fourth COM4 /dev/ttyS3 02E8 3
Be careful when specifying the serial ports in Linux/UNIX commands. As you can see from the above table, the Linux ttyS number is one less than the Windows COM number because Linux starts at 0 while DOS starts at 1.
If you're stuck with an internal modem with no jumpers, or you have problems with an internal modem, try reading through the Modem HOWTO.
If you've got an external modem a simple command will let you know if the system can communicate with it. For a modem connected to the first serial port, simply type in:
echo atdt3333333 > /dev/ttyS0
and look at the modem lights to see if there is any flashing when you hit enter.
Follow that command with this one:
echo ath > /dev/ttyS0
to hang the modem up.
The Logical Connection
Now that your modem is physcially connected it's time to set up a connection to your ISP. Be sure you are logged in as root before proceeding.
There are actually two parts to setting up a connection to your ISP. You have to configure the dialer (the chat program), and the PPP (Point-to-Point Protocol) settings (the pppd daemon). PPP is the protocol that modems use to communicate over a serial link. (PPP is a powerful protocol that is also often used when connecting distant routers over dedicated leased lines.)
Install the ppp daemon package and the configuration package both with the command:
apt-get install pppconfig
Knowing the version of the pppd daemon you're using can sometimes be useful. While pppd doesn't have a command-line parameter to show the version, using the -v parameter does work because it's seen as an invalid parameter and, as such, causes the help screen to appear. The version number is at the top of this information. So to see your pppd version, simply use the command:
To configure chat we have to edit the /etc/chatscripts/provider file. Initially, the file looks like this:
You can edit this file by entering the following two commands:ABORT BUSY ABORT "NO CARRIER" ABORT VOICE ABORT "NO DIALTONE" "" ATDT<put phone number here> ogin <put your login name here> word \q<put your password here>
Once you edit the file it should look something like this:cd /etc/chatscripts
Press Ctrl-X and then 'y' when prompted to save the changes (and Enter when the file name is displayed).ABORT BUSY ABORT "NO CARRIER" ABORT VOICE ABORT "NO DIALTONE" "" ATDT5551212 ogin bgates word \qluvlinux
Once you've edited and saved the file it's time to configure ppp. Oddly enough, this configuration file has the same name as the dialer configuration file. It's just located in a different place.
/etc/ppp/peers/provider is the ppp configuration file. You edit it by typing in:
There are three, maybe five, things you need to change in this file:cd /etc/ppp/peers
- Look for the line starting with the word connect and replace the string of * characters at the end of this line with your ISP's telephone number. Don't delete the quote mark. It needs to be at the end of the line.
- Look for the default modem line which has /dev/modem and change it to the correct ttyS entry for your modem's serial port (ex: /dev/ttyS1 for the second serial port)
Near the bottom of the file you'll want to comment out an entry by putting a # in front of the word persist to keep the modem from re-dialing.
- If you system is on a LAN that either has it's own DNS servers or has a gateway onto the Internet you'll want to comment out a couple entries by putting a # in front of the words usepeerdns and defaultroute so iyour LAN connection doesn't get hosed up.
Close the editor saving the file (Ctrl-X,y,Enter).
If your system is not on a LAN that's either connected to the Internet or has its own DNS servers there's one more file that we need to edit and it's not really related to ppp or the dialer. It's a TCP/IP configuration file. The /etc/resolv.conf file is where you enter your ISP's DNS server information. If you're going to be connecting to the Interent you need to be able to resolve domain names (we talk more about this on the
DNS Servicespage). Edit the resolv.conf file by entering:
and edit the file entering the two IP addresses of your ISP's DNS servers so it looks like this:cd /etc
It's likely that the domain name on the search line is the one you entered during the installation. Be sure to change it to your ISP's domain name. Once you save this file and exit the editor you're ready to roll.search yourisp.com
Above we said that the pppd daemon is responsible for setting up the connection. We don't run the daemon directly. Instead we use a couple shell scripts that have been created to set up the connection and to take it down when we're done. These two shell scripts are called pon and poff
Because you changed several configuration files it would be easier to simply reboot the system rather than restart the associated services. Once it comes back up and you're logged in, simply enter:
at the shell prompt to dial and connect to your ISP. If you have an external modem you can watch the lights to see if you get a connect. Once you're connected, see if you can ping one of the DNS servers that you entered in the above resolv.conf file. For example, if the address of one of the DNS servers is 172.18.180.99 you would enter:
You should get responses back. Press Ctrl-C to stop the responses.
You can also check to make sure your DNS resolution is working correctly by trying to ping using a domain name.
You should get responses back here also. If you can ping an IP address but not a domain name there's something is wrong in your resolv.conf file.
Note: You may not receive ping responses if you have already configured a network card on your system. This is because the system is using the default gateway setting for your ethernet NIC (if you entered an IP address for one during the install) and not the ppp0 interface that the modem sets up. You can check this out with the command:
Look for the default line. Look at the far right column and see if eth0 is listed as the "Iface" for this line. If it is, your system is sending all your Internet-destined traffic out of the NIC (a dead end). Try typing in the following command at the shell prompt:
route add default ppp0
Now try pinging your ISP's DNS server address. You should be able to now because your system is routing traffic out of the modem. You can verify this by looking at the system's routing table again by again entering route by itself at the shell prompt. You should see a second default line with ppp0 listed in the right-most column.
The above behavior is normal. Think about it. If you have a network-connected system but you need to access the Internet via a modem, your network obviously doesn't have a gateway to the Internet. In this case, you shouldn't have a default gateway setting in your NIC configuration. We get more into default gateways and the ping command on the Networking page.
Have you ever surfed the Web using a text-based Web browser? Try it out! At the shell prompt type in:
apt-get install lynx
and press Enter. Once it's installed type in lynx at the shell prompt to start it. Then use the following keys to try it out:
- use the up and down arrow keys to move from one link to another and look at the text on the current page
- use the right arrow key to "follow" a link
- use the left arrow key to return to the previous page
- hit the g key to enter a URL to go to a different site
- hit the q key to quit lynx
Have you ever wondered why those HOWTO pages all have the same bland format? It's so they display in a readable format when viewed with text-based browsers. Try looking at one of the HOWTOs in Lynx by press g and then typing in the following URL (note that it, like Linux/UNIX, is case-sensitive):
As you can see, you don't need a GUI to get Web-based help with your Linux questions.
When you're done using the Internet connection be sure to disconnect from your ISP by typing in:
at the shell prompt.
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